Referencia

Neuron, Volume 68, Issue 1, 6 October 2010, Pages 113-126

Autores

Marta Navarrete and Alfonso Araque

Resumen

El estudio desvela nuevos mecanismos de acción de los cannabinoides y endocannabinoides y de sus consecuencias funcionales en la transferencia de información en el sistema nervioso. En él se muestra que los endocannabinoides deprimen la transmisión sináptica cuando actúan directamente sobre receptores neuronales, pero potencian la eficacia de la conectividad sináptica cuando activan receptores en los astrocitos, un tipo de célula no neuronal que durante mucho tiempo se ha considerado que no participaba activamente en la transmisión de información que ocurre en el cerebro durante la actividad nerviosa. Estos hallazgos representan un cambio conceptual del conocimiento que hasta ahora se tenía sobre los mecanismos de acción de los cannabinoides y endocannabinoides, y consolidan la idea de que los astrocitos juegan un papel más relevante del que originalmente se pensaba en el funcionamiento del cerebro.

Descripción

Endocannabinoids and their receptor CB1 play key roles in brain function. Astrocytes express CB1Rs that are activated by endocannabinoids released by neurons. However, the consequences of the endocannabinoid-mediated neuron-astrocyte signaling on synaptic transmission are unknown. We show that endocannabinoids released by hippocampal pyramidal neurons increase the probability of transmitter release at CA3-CA1 synapses. This synaptic potentiation is due to CB1R-induced Ca+2 elevations in astrocytes, which stimulate the release of glutamate that activates presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors. While endocannabinoids induce synaptic depression in the stimulated neuron by direct activation of presynaptic CB1Rs, they indirectly lead to synaptic potentiation in relatively more distant neurons by activation of CB1Rs in astrocytes. Hence, astrocyte calcium signal evoked by endogenous stimuli (neuron-released endocannabinoids) modulates synaptic transmission. Therefore, astrocytes respond to endocannabinoid  that then potentiate synaptic transmission, indicating that astrocytes are actively involved in brain physiology.

Imágen artículo Noviembre

REFERENCIA DEL GRUPO E INVESTIGADOR
Nuestro grupo está interesado en determinar los aspectos celulares y moleculares que subyacen a la comunicación bidireccional entre astrocitos y neuronas y en esclarecer los procesos fisiológicos en los que participa dicha comunicación. En la actualidad perseguimos dos grandes líneas generales de investigación que pretenden aclarar el papel de los astrocitos en distintos aspectos de la fisiopatología del sistema nervioso.

Descárgate este artículo aquí.
Más artículos en la revista SEBBM.

¿Acabas de publicar un artículo interesante?

Manda la referencia a través de nuestro formulario.  Límite de edad 32 años. Los artículos seleccionados serán destacados como artículos del mes y participarán en el Premio al mejor artículo de jóvenes de la SEBBM, que se entregará en el congreso de la SEBBM (inscripción y alojamiento gratuitos).

Otros "Artículos del mes"

Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ decreases with age and correlates with the decline in muscle function in Drosophila

29-05-2020

Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and strength associated with age, has been linked to impairment of the cytosolic Ca2+ peak that triggers muscle contraction, but mechanistic details remain unknown...

Leer más

Structural basis for substrate specificity and catalysis of α1,6-fucosyltransferase

30-04-2020

Core-fucosylation is an essential biological modification by which a fucose is transferred from GDP-β-L-fucose to the innermost N-acetylglucosamine residue of N-linked glycans. A single human enzyme α1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) is the...

Leer más

Molecular basis for fibroblast growth factor 23 O-glycosylation by GalNAc-T3

31-03-2020

Polypeptide GalNAc-transferase T3 (GalNAc-T3) regulates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) by O-glycosylating Thr178 in a furin proprotein processing motif RHT 178R ↓S. FGF23 regulates phosphate homeostasis and deficiency in GALNT3...

Leer más

Identification of distinct maturation steps involved in human 40S ribosomal subunit biosynthesis

29-02-2020

Technical problems intrinsic to the purification of preribosome intermediates have limited our understanding of ribosome biosynthesis in humans. Addressing this issue is important given the implication of this biological process...

Leer más

Unraveling the cellular origin and clinical prognostic markers of infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia using genome-wide analysis

23-01-2020

B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the commonest childhood cancer. In infants, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia remains fatal, especially in patients with t(4;11), present in ~80% of cases. The pathogenesis of...

Leer más

Mip6 binds directly to the Mex67 UBA domain to maintain low levels of Msn2/4 stress-dependent mRNAs

23-12-2019

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) participate in all steps of gene expression, underscoring their potential as regulators of RNA homeostasis. We structurally and functionally characterize Mip6, a four-RNA recognition motif (RRM)-containing RBP...

Leer más

A bacterial light response reveals an orphan desaturase for human plasmalogen synthesis

01-12-2019

Plasmalogens are glycerophospholipids with a hallmark sn-1 vinyl ether bond. These lipids are found in animals and some bacteria and have proposed membrane organization, signaling, and antioxidant roles. We discovered...

Leer más

The structure of a polygamous repressor reveals how phage-inducible chromosomal islands spread in nature

01-11-2019

Stl is a master repressor encoded by Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) that maintains integration of these elements in the bacterial chromosome. After infection or induction of a resident helper...

Leer más

Self-Assembling ELR-Based Nanoparticles as Smart Drug-Delivery Systems Modulating Cellular Growth via Akt

01-10-2019

This work investigates the physicochemical properties and in vitro accuracy of a genetically engineered drug delivery system based on elastin-like block recombinamers. The DNA recombinant technics allowed us to create...

Leer más

Structure–Function of MamC Loop and Its Effect on the *in Vitro* Precipitation of Biomimetic Magnetite Nanoparticles

01-09-2019

MamC, an integral protein of the magnetosome membrane, has recently been proposed as a strong candidate to produce biomimetic (magnetosome-like) magnetite nanoparticles that could be used as an alternative to...

Leer más

Socios Protectores